Methods for calculating electrically small wire antennas




electrically small antennas microwave range, voltage standing wave ratio, quality factor, efficiency of the electric small linear wire antennas


The optimization method for the electrically small linear wire antennas with lumped reactive loads included to their branches is first proposed. The results of the analysis and optimization of microwave characteristics of electrically small linear wire antennas with reactive loads are presented. The results for the quality factor and efficiency of such antennas are first presented. The study is carried out by the approximate and rigorous methods.


H. A. Wheeler, “Fundamental limitations of small antennas,” Proc. IRE, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1479-1484, 1947. DOI:

V. I. Slyusar, “60 years of electrically small antennas theory,” Proc. of 6th Int. Conf. on Antenna Theory and Techniques, 17-21 Sept. 2007, Sevastopol, Ukraine. IEEE, 2007. DOI:

A. Fourie and D. Nitch, “Super NEC: antenna and indoor-propagation simulation,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, P. 31-48, 2000. DOI:

S. E. Bankov and A. A. Kurushin, Calculation of the Radiated Structures Using FEKO [in Russian]. Moscow: Rodnik, 2008.

R. Mittra (ed.), Computer Technicques for Electromagnetics, vol. 7. Oxford-New York-Toronto: Pergamon Press, 1973. 485 p.

R. W. P. King, Theory of Linear Antennas. Cambridge, Mass.: Harward University Press, 1956. 927 p.

A. L. Drabkin and V. L. Zuzenko, Antenna-Feeder Ustroystva [in Russian]. Moscow: Sov. Radio, 1961. 816 p.

V. V. Nikolsky, Antennas. Moscow: Communications, 1966. 368 p.

D. M. Himmelblau, Applied Nonlinear Programming. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972.

E. H. Newman, P. Bohley, C. H. Walter, “Two methods for the measurement of antenna efficiency,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 23, no. 4, p. 457-461, 1975. DOI:





UWB, low-gain, communication and printed antennas